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The game is typically played with a card pack, either a French-suited pack from which the Twos, Threes, Fours, Fives and Sixes have been removed or, especially in Europe, with a card German pack.
For more than 5 players, 2 packs of cards may be used. The players are dealt each a hand of cards usually 5 or 6 . The rest are placed face down as the stock.
At the beginning of the game the topmost card is revealed, then the players each get a turn to play cards. One can play a card if it corresponds to the suit or value of the open card.
If a player is not able to, they draw one card from the stack. If he can play this card, he may do so, otherwise he keeps the drawn card and passes his turn.
If the drawing stack is empty, the playing stack except for the topmost card is shuffled and turned over to serve as new drawing stack.
The first one to go out must say "Mau" in order to win. If the last card is a Jack, they must say "Mau Mau" to win double. In Portugal , a variation on this game is called "Puque" reads as Poock, in English.
The rules are almost the same, with the 2 replacing the 8 as the "skip turn" card. One must say Puque when one plays his next-to-last card, and doesn't have to say anything different from end with a Jack, still getting the double score.
While Elstein regards the "requirement" for the "great majority of Kikuyu" to live inside "fortified villages" as "serv[ing] the purpose of protection", Professor David Anderson amongst others regards the "compulsory resettlement" of "1,, Kikuyu" inside what, for the "most" part, were "little more than concentration camps" as "punitive.
See Elstein's "Daniel Goldhagen and Kenya: UK government accepts abuse took place". Retrieved 29 May Walton , pp. See also the relevant footnote, n.
Retrieved 17 November — via National Library of Australia. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 9 November — via National Library of Australia.
Nearly three-quarters of the city's African male population of sixty thousand were Kikuyu, and most of these men, along with some twenty thousand Kikuyu women and children accompanying them, were allegedly 'active or passive supporters of Mau Mau'.
It is not known how many humans or animals were killed. Largely framed prior to the declaration of the State of Emergency in , but not implemented until two years later, this development is central to the story of Kenya's decolonization".
For Anderson, see his Histories of the Hanged , p. Time to say sorry". Retrieved 14 April They therefore confessed to British officers, and sought an early release from detention.
Other detainees refused to accept the British demand that they sully other people's reputations by naming those whom they knew to be involved in Mau Mau.
This 'hard core' kept their mouths closed, and languished for years in detention. The battle behind the wire was not fought over detainees' loyalty to a Mau Mau movement.
Detainees' intellectual and moral concerns were always close to home. British officials thought that those who confessed had broken their allegiance to Mau Mau.
But what moved detainees to confess was not their broken loyalty to Mau Mau, but their devotion to their families.
British officials played on this devotion to hasten a confession. The battle behind the wire was not fought between patriotic hard-core Mau Mau and weak-kneed, wavering, broken men who confessed.
Both hard core and soft core had their families in mind. The quiet whistleblowers on events in Kenya deserve praise".
It is debatable whether Peter Kenyatta was sympathetic to Mau Mau in the first place and therefore whether he truly switched sides.
The Birth of Britain's Gulag. Baring informed Lennox-Boyd that eight European officers were facing accusations of a series of murders, beatings and shootings.
Anderson , p. The quote is of the colony's director of medical services. Schemes of medical help, however desirable and however high their medical priority, could not in [these] circumstances be approved".
The quote is of Baring. Good, Bad or Unimportant? Journal of African Economies. Retrieved 8 March Solis 15 February The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War.
Histories of the Hanged: UK expresses regret over abuse as Mau Mau promised payout". Mau Mau and Kenya: An Analysis of a Peasant Revolt.
Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana: Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 6 December This episode is not mentioned in histories of the Mau Mau revolt, suggesting that such incidents were rare.
The post-colonial state must therefore be seen as a representation of the interests protected and promoted during the latter years of colonial rule.
Under Jomo Kenyatta, the post-colonial state represented a 'pact-of-domination' between transnational capital, the elite and the executive.
It was not that Mau Mau won its war against the British; guerrilla movements rarely win in military terms; and militarily Mau Mau was defeated.
But in order to crown peace with sustainable civil governance—and thus reopen a prospect of controlled decolonization—the British had to abandon 'multiracialism' and adopt African rule as their vision of Kenya's future.
The blood of Mau Mau, no matter how peculiarly ethnic in source and aim, was the seed of Kenya's all-African sovereignty. Retrieved 30 May Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 26 May UK government cannot be held liable".
Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 18 March Sir Evelyn Baring, the Governor of Kenya, in a telegram to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, reported allegations of extreme brutality made against eight European district officers.
They included 'assault by beating up and burning of two Africans during screening [interrogation]' and one officer accused of 'murder by beating up and roasting alive of one African'.
No action was taken against the accused. Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 6 April A letter was sent to William Hague on March 31 stating: Squaring up to the seamier side of empire is long overdue".
Retrieved 27 July Mark Thompson 7 April These new documents were withheld because they were considered to be particularly sensitive, so we can but imagine what will be in these documents.
Senior members of the Commonwealth Office in London did know what was happening; senior legal officials in London did , to some extent, sanction the use of coercive force; and also, at Cabinet level, the Secretary of State for the Colonies certainly knew of the excesses that were taking place.
The quote is of Anderson. Retrieved 9 April In a statement to the court dated March 8, released to The Times yesterday, Martin Tucker, head of corporate records at the Foreign Office, reported that the 13 missing boxes could not be found.
He found evidence that the files had once been stored in the basement of the Old Admiralty Building in Whitehall, but traces of them had vanished after FCO transparency is a carefully cultivated myth".
Retrieved 7 May Kenyans win ruling against UK". Retrieved 6 May Under Kenyatta many became influential members of the new government.
This system of loyalist patronage percolated all the way down to the local level of government, with former Home Guards dominating bureaucracies that had once been the preserve of the young British colonial officers in the African districts.
Of the numerous vacancies created by decolonization—powerful posts like provincial commissioner and district commissioner—the vast majority were filled by one time loyalists.
Archived from the original pdf on 9 October Constitution of Kenya, National Council for Law Reporting. Archived from the original on 21 January Retrieved 7 June Changing Kenyatta Day to Mashujaa Day is not just an innocuous and harmless exercise in constitutional semantics.
He acknowledged the part the freedom fighters had played in the struggle, but he never once made any public statement that conceded to them any rights or any genuine compensation.
Mau Mau was a thing best forgotten. In Kenyatta's Kenya there would be a deafening silence about Mau Mau". Rethinking the Mau Mau in Colonial Kenya.
Registration and Rough Justice". University of North Carolina Press. The Defence of the Realm: The Authorized History of MI5. Atieno-Odhiambo, Elisha Stephen The Paradox of Mau Mau".
Canadian Journal of African Studies. The Dialectic of Domination. Fertility and Mortality in Kenya in the s: The Journal of African History.
Defeating Mau Mau, Creating Kenya: Counterinsurgency, Civil War, and Decolonization. Understanding the Bureaucratic-Executive State, —78".
Review of African Political Economy. The Giriama and Colonial Resistance in Kenya, — University of California Press.
Carothers, John Colin The African Mind in Health and Disease: A Study in Ethnopsychiatry. Carter, Morris; et al. Archived from the original PDF on 20 October History, Memory and Politics.
The Origins and Growth of Mau Mau: Britain's Real Role in the World. Henry Holt and Company. US edition ——— The Brutal End of Empire in Kenya.
UK edition ——— The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. Ellis, John . The Social History of the Machine Gun. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Emerson Welch, Claude State University of New York Press. The British Way in Counter-Insurgency, — The Mau Mau War in Perspective.
Mass Violence in the Twentieth-Century World. From the Cape to Cairo: The Logic of Violence in Civil War. East African Educational Publishers. Squatters and the Roots of Mau Mau, — End of Empire revised ed.
Journal of African Cultural Studies. Arms, Authority and Narration. The Psychology of Rebellion: The Full Story of Mau Mau. An Analysis of a Peasant Revolt revised ed.
Conflict and Accommodation in Western Kenya: The Gusii and the British, — Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
McCulloch, Jock . Colonial Psychiatry and "the African Mind" revised ed. The British Experience of Irregular Warfare.
The 'Mau Mau' Rebellion, —". Journal of Military and Strategic Studies. Archived from the original on 22 March Ogot, Bethwell Allan Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Ormsby-Gore, William ; et al.
Report of the East Africa Commission. Pen and Sword Books. In Kevin Shillington, ed. The Making of Kenya's Postcolonial Elite. University of Wisconsin Press.
The Development of Corporate Capitalism in Kenya, — Thiong'o, Ngugi wa . A Writer's Prison Diary". A Reader in Culture, History and Representation 2nd ed.
Kenya Europeans and the Land Issue — digital reprint ed. Fighting the Mau Mau: Berman, Bruce; Lonsdale, John Conflict in Kenya and Africa; Book One: Conflict in Kenya and Africa; Book Two: The First Triumph of the System, —".
Kenyan Chiefs and Politicians, — University Press of Colorado. Militant Anti-Colonialism in Africa and the West, — British Government Policy and Decolonisation, Scrutinising the Official Mind.
Henderson, Ian ; Goodhart, Philip Man Hunt in Kenya. Hewitt, Peter . Kariuki, Josiah Mwangi New York and London: The Politics of the Independence of Kenya.
Making Mau Mau and Remaking Kenya". Lovatt Smith, David Kenya, the Kikuyu and Mau Mau. The Memoirs of Lord Chandos. Marsh, Zoe; Kingsnorth, G.
A History of East Africa. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? First Known Use of mau-mau , in the meaning defined at transitive sense.
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